Carbon 14 dating papyrus fragments

25-Dec-2019 03:01

Rachael Kohn: Is there any other extant inscription which makes you think that this one that youve got is authentic, and from that time? First of all we have wood, and wood with texts from that period.There is evidence on wood just south of Hadrians Wall in northern England, just south of the Scottish border, which also has survived beautifully in the right conditions for almost 2,000 years.Carsten Thiede: Well she probably stayed for about a year. Rachael Kohn: And there under that former temple, she found the cross, and I gather a couple of other crosses too?Carsten Thiede: Yes, she excavated or had others to excavate on her behalf, underneath the rubble, which was there once the temple had been destroyed, Hadrians temple, and so some of her people, her diggers, her fellow archaeologists, found bars, beams of wood of crosses and indeed the inscription, at least one of the inscriptions.Carsten Thiede: Well if you read what it says on the piece of wood that has survived, which is about one-third of the complete inscription, you realise that its not word identical with any of the four gospel accounts.All four gospels mention the inscription, the longest version is the one in John, who also says that he was an eye-witness of the crucifixion, thats what it actually says in his gospel. Carsten Thiede: Well it says if you translate it in English, it says Jesus the Nazarinus King of the Jews.She asked the local, the Christian community where is that site, because it wasnt visible any more, the site of Golgotha and the empty tomb.Another Emperor, Hadrian, in 135, had actually built a temple dedicated to the Roman goddess Venus above the two sides, the twin sides of Golgotha, and the empty tomb, so all Helena had to do when she was told about this was to pull down the temple, which she did, and underneath she found indeed the hillock of Golgotha and tombs, one of them, according to tradition, was the tomb of Jesus. Rachael Kohn: She was in her late 70s or 80s then; how long did she stay in Jerusalem to have this temple pulled down and excavated?

Rachael Kohn: In mediaeval times fragments of the true cross were the most sought-after relics in Christendom, but most were fakes.

So we have details about her pilgrimage, and indeed the sites she rediscovered or established, where she built the first church as such in Bethlehem, or indeed in Jerusalem.

Paintings, or those we still have in museums, in galleries in churches, are of course much later, so theyre mediaeval, and you cant really know, with one or two exceptions.

The vertical one was always in situ, it was at the site.

It would have been used and re-used and re-used again, many, many times, over many years.

Rachael Kohn: In mediaeval times fragments of the true cross were the most sought-after relics in Christendom, but most were fakes.

So we have details about her pilgrimage, and indeed the sites she rediscovered or established, where she built the first church as such in Bethlehem, or indeed in Jerusalem.

Paintings, or those we still have in museums, in galleries in churches, are of course much later, so theyre mediaeval, and you cant really know, with one or two exceptions.

The vertical one was always in situ, it was at the site.

It would have been used and re-used and re-used again, many, many times, over many years.

So for that bar, or for one of those two beams or bars, you would not really have any chance of authenticating any of those simply because they are all too small and they could be authentic, but you dont really know.