Dating the origins of polyploidy events

07-Nov-2019 10:39

Carps are remarkable for changes they undergo during the spawning season.

Some fish, which are usually silvery, develop bright reds and yellows.

A horny pad on the underside of the basioccipital bone of the skull is used to masticate the food against.

Tooth form varies with the food - molar-shaped teeth are used to crush molluscs, flat but grooved surfaces for grinding plant food and sharp edged teeth for slicing various invertebrate foods.

Cyprinion may have entered the Middle East during the colonization event that isolated the genera Barbus sensu lato and Schizothorax in the European and Asian basins respectively.

The carp or minnow family is one of the most widespread and speciose families of fishes in the world, certainly the most speciose in fresh water and possibly the largest family of vertebrates (the Gobiidae may be the first).Pharyngeal teeth lie on a modified, fifth gill arch which can be seen or probed behind the shoulder girdle, just inside the gill opening.The arch has to be removed with dissecting equipment to count the teeth.Tubercles are also used to fight other males and defend and clean nests. Nest building males are larger than females, the reverse of the situation in most fishes where egg-bearing females are the largest.Not all species build nests and some simply broadcast eggs over weed, gravel or sand. This is a prolonged spawning season which ensures no single batch of eggs is lost to unfavourable, temporary environmental changes such as floods.

The carp or minnow family is one of the most widespread and speciose families of fishes in the world, certainly the most speciose in fresh water and possibly the largest family of vertebrates (the Gobiidae may be the first).

Pharyngeal teeth lie on a modified, fifth gill arch which can be seen or probed behind the shoulder girdle, just inside the gill opening.

The arch has to be removed with dissecting equipment to count the teeth.

Tubercles are also used to fight other males and defend and clean nests. Nest building males are larger than females, the reverse of the situation in most fishes where egg-bearing females are the largest.

Not all species build nests and some simply broadcast eggs over weed, gravel or sand. This is a prolonged spawning season which ensures no single batch of eggs is lost to unfavourable, temporary environmental changes such as floods.

But note that some authors place Barbus grypus in the Indian genus Tor and that evidently more work needs to be done on its relationships and on those of other species that have no evident Euro-Mediterranean relatives, but whose origins may well lie in the Oriental Region.